Whenever there is melanocyte excess activity especially around eyes then it will lead to the hyperpigmentation around the eyes. Whenever there is an extra pigment or there is hyperpigmentation around your eyes then in simple word it is called under eye dark circle. Usually both lids upper lid & lower lid they become pigmented.
Genetic or Heredity:- There are a lot of causes basically important cause is it is genetic or familiar whenever in your family your Mother, sister, father or any close family member is having Under eye dark circle it may lead to hyperpigmentation around eyes. This is one of the important cause second important cause is
Nutritional deficiency:- If you are not eating properly then nutritional deficiency may occur. A lot of Indian females or even males they are anemic they are having a lot of nutritional deficiency and those deficiencies lead to periorbital pigmentation or Under eye dark circle.
Lack of Sleep:- If you are not having proper sleep if there is a strain on your eyes then surely the venus enlargement or blood supply around eyes increases you look little fatigue or slowly pigmentation around eyes increases.
People who are in front of iPad, laptop, phone or computers or those who are looking towards the screen or late night sleep all this may lead to eye strain then venus enlargement and pigmentation around eyes may occur.
In few patients there is vascular anastomosis that means venus there is a lot of veins flexes around eyes and the skin around the eye is very thin as compared to the remaining skin on the face and through that, if there is venus enlargement if the veins are large then there is pigmentation may occur.
By changing your lifestyle we can reduce or prevent further pigmentation. Whenever there is a loss of volume around your eyes or under eye bags due to fat or there are under eye bags due to fluid retention then it is become difficult to treat without surgery. Whenever there is fat tissue accumulation below eyes then shadow effects occur. Whenever there is the loss of fat or whenever tear trough occurs especially in the younger patient then we have to do either fat grafting or feather & tear trough deformities corrected. When there is excess fat bag around eyes those fats bags remove with the help of surgical treatment and we can reduce the shadow effect.
How to reduce under eye dark circles?
Wash off your eyes or wash off your face 2-3 times with cold water it will reduce the venous involvement and yes we can reduce the pigmentation to a certain extent.
By using goggles, changing Lifestyle, taking proper nutrition and taking care of your facial skin and around the eye reduces the dark circles around eyes.
Fractional CO2 laser:- It will help to take out the pigment. Also, help to increase collagen deposition & reduce the pigmentation around the eyes.