Melanin is a brown pigment which imparts skin its characteristic color. Fair skin people have a low composition of melanin and it increases with each tone darker. This melanin is produced by melanocytes situated in the epidermis.
It is the deviation of the color of skin from its natural identity. The skin can get lighter, darker or reddened depending upon the underlying factors. It is also observed after cuts, scratches, burns etc.
This involves the decrease in the constituent melanin beneath the skin surface. This mostly occurs due to a decrease in melanin production.
Vitiligo– It is an acquired autoimmune disorder in which white patches of skin are present on the body focally, symmetrically or universally.
Albinism– This is a birth defect in which there is a complete loss of pigmentation in skin, hair, and eyes.
Here the skin is darker in color than usual due to deposition of increased amounts of melanin. The most common problems behind it are a side effect of drugs, over sun exposure and disorders causing inflammation.
Some examples are as followed-
Melasma- In this disease brown patches are seen, most commonly on the face. It also occurs in pregnancy but resolves after pregnancy and is called chloasma.
Complete loss of pigment. Eg- vitiligo. Onset is on life experiences, there is no sex predisposition, lesions are milky white, round or oval in shape and spread.
Some other skin pigmentation problems are acanthosis nigricans, xeroderma pigmentosum, incontinentia pigmenti, lentigines etc.
Red skin is seen in the case of pityriasis alba. It is scaly in nature and is believed to be a manifestation of atopic dermatitis.https://www.youtube.com/embed/HSZBN5d7H6M?feature=oembed&enablejsapi=1&origin=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.clearskin.in
Pigmentation is the accumulation of dark pigments that is melanin beneath the skin which leads to dark facial spots. Melanin production is triggered by sun exposure, so take care everytime you go out on a bright sunny day.
In hyperpigmentation treatment suggested are-
In hypopigmentation therapy, chemical peels, corticosteroids, surgery and removing remaining pigment works.
A chemical peel is used to exfoliate and peel the skin off so that new skin is generated at the site of a lesion. They are of three types – superficial, medium and deep peels. It should not be used in nursing or pregnant woman, psoriasis, eczema, dermatitis or rosacea, having taken Accutane in last 6 months or used retinoid in last 48 hours.
Dermabrasion is used to remove the upper layer of the skin. It is used to treat brown spots, skin scars, skin lesions, sun damaged skin, wrinkles etc.
Laser therapy is used to improve the appearance of skin. It is accompanied by effects like swelling, itching, burning sensation, scarring etc and should be thought of properly before administration.
On the positive front most of these problems are easy to treat and will only traumatize you temporarily but prevention is better than cure so visit a doctor in case of any discomfort.
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